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**What is Julian date?**

Julian Date, commonly known as Julian Day, is the total number of days passed since the beginning of a cycle of 7980 years that began on January 1, 4713 BC, and will end on January 22, 3268.

It was developed in the 16th Century by Joseph Scaliger. Several traditional time-cycles like the solar cycle, lunar cycle, and Roman tax cycle were used to calculate the length of the cycle from which 7980 came out as a common multiple, thus justifying the number of years in the cycle.

**Calculation of Julian Date:**

A complete day of Julian Date is counted from one noon to another. Therefore, one may come across decimals as part of it. Since noon is counted as one day, 6 PM is considered a quarter of day or 0.25, midnight is half a day or 0.5, and 6 AM is three-quarters of a day or 0.75 days.

The number of days can be calculated easily from our modern date calendar. You need to calculate the number of days that have passed since the beginning of the cycle since 4713 BC. Then on the day of calculation, you need to add the approximate decimal according to the time.

**How to Calculate Julian Date With Example**?

Let’s say you want to convert a date in 2015 into Julian Date. Firstly, count the years between 4713 BC (the beginning of the cycle) and 2015.

4713 BC to 0 CE (common era) is 4713 years, and 0 CE to 2015 has 2015 years.

**Note: 0 CE is also a year:**

So the total number of years between 4713 BC and 2015 is 6729 years. Now, calculate the number of leap years in these 6729 years.

**Note: **Before 1582, every fourth was counted as a leap year, but after 1582 the condition was slightly changed. After 1582, any year divided by four and four hundred was considered a leap year. Hence, 1600 is a leap year, but 1700 is a non-leap year.

Multiply the number of leap years by 366 and the number of non-leap years by 365. Now add the two totals and subtract ten from it for the changeover in the calendar type that occurred when we shifted from Julian to Gregorian(Modern) calendar in 1582.

Count the number of days from January 1 till the date that you’re converting into Julian Date. Remember you’ll have to add an extra date for leap years as there are 29 days in February in leap years. Let’s say the date you are calculating is February 15. So the total number of days between January 1 and February 15 is 46.

Now, count the time passed since noon of that day and convert it into its decimal approximate. For example, the time of calculation is 4:25:15 PM. Count the number of seconds passed since noon till this time. It will be 20,415 seconds.

If the time was 4:25:15 AM, you would have to add additional seconds that have passed since noon of the previous day, plus the midnight.

Divide 20,415 from the total number of seconds in a day to get the fraction value, which is divided by 86,400.

Finally, add it to the day, and you’ll have a fully converted Julian Date.

So June 15, 2015, in Julian Date will be 15166, September 27, 2008, 8271, and so on.

**Julian Date Calendar 2023 Portrait**

**Julian Date Calendar Horizontal**

**Julian Calendar:**

People often get confused between Julian Date and Julian Calendar. Julius Caeser introduced Julian Calendar in the year 46 BC. It was a reform of the Roman Calendar and was taken into effect in 45 BC, shortly after the Roman conquest of Egypt. After its introduction, it was widely used in most parts of the world, including Europe and America, which were under European settlements. According to Julian Calendar, every year had 365.25 days. It was divided into 12 months where each month had 30 or 31 days except February, which had 28 days in a year. Thus every fourth year had 366 days, and the extra day was added into February, making it a month of 29 days. However, there wasn’t the February 29. Instead, February 23 was repeated.

The problem with the Julian Calendar was that was dependent on astronomical occurrences. This created a major issue when astronomical events such as the vernal equinox and the winter solstice happened. Due to this, there were only 19 days in September 1752 in North America as the days between September 2nd and 14th were skipped. The Gregorian Calendar, which we use now, replaced the Julian Calendar when the formula of calculating the leap years was changed in 1752. January 1 was observed as the first day of a new year, moved from 25th March. This resulted in a dropping of 11 days in the month of September in 1752.

**How to Read Julian Calendar:**

It is very simple to understand Julian Calendar. It is mainly used in food products to identify the manufacturing date of a particular product. The first two digits are the last numbers of the year, whereas the three numbers after that represent the day of the year.

For example, 22165 represents the 165th day of 2022, that is, June 14, 2022.

**Difference Between Julian and Gregorian Calendars:**

Some major differences between the two are:

- Julian Calendar was made official in 46 BC, whereas Gregorian Calender is currently being used worldwide.
- The average year in Julian Calendar has 365.25 days, whereas the average year in Gregorian Calender has 365.2425 days.
- During the Julian Calendar era, every fourth year was considered a leap year. Still, in Gregorian Calendar, a year will only be considered a leap year if it is divisible by four and four hundred.

**Conclusion:**

Joseph Scaliger introduced Julian Date in the 16th Century. Julius Caeser introduced Julian Calendar in 46 BC after the Roman Conquest of Egypt, Gregorian Calendar replaced it in 1528, and it is still in use. However, there are still places where the Julian Calendar is being used like the Eastern Orthodox Church and parts of Oriental Orthodoxy.